Two of my colleagues (Lillard & Erisir, 2011) published something that fits the bill quite nicely.
I can't find a version that is not behind a paywall--my apologies. If you can't access it, let me give you at least two of the highlights. First, they offer this wonderful table that summarizes different varieties of changes to the brain. (Note that some of these changes are consequences of neural development (orchestrated mainly by genetic information) as opposed to neuroplasticity (which is a consequence of external stimulation and/or reverberation with neural circuits. Click the table to see a larger version.
- Sensitization & habituation (increased or decreased neural response due to repeated exposure)
- Enriched environments: animals learn more (and show more neural connectivity) in environments where there is a lot to be learned.
- Attention: Plasticity is enhanced by attention
- Visuo-motor learning: the famous London cabbies study, but others too
- Neurogenesis: tons of data in rats.
- Myelination: A new technology (diffusion tensor imaging) allows visualization of white matter volume and organization. That myelination is not complete until later than thought captured the headlines, but equally important, other work shows that experience changes myelination.
What does all this mean for educators?
Nothing. Directly. But ongoing work in this area contributes to our understanding of learning, and is part of the larger project to help us better understand students and how to make schooling more effective.
Lillard, A. S. & Erisir, A. (2011). Old dogs learning new tricks: Neuroplasticity beyond the juvenile period. Developmental Review, 31